Next-generation electric automotive and marine batteries need thermal-management materials that are lightweight, thin and long lasting. These materials must not only cool the cells during normal operation, but must prevent propagation in the event of a cell failure. Flexible graphite directly replaces thick and heavy aluminum in these lithium ion transportation battery modules, where energy density, safety, and performance are critical.
In both battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), the battery modules must be safe, lightweight and compact. Traditional thermal management metals, such as aluminum, result in battery modules that are unacceptably thick and heavy. Flexible, natural graphite directly replaces aluminum to cool the cells during normal charge/discharge operation and to prevent propagation in the event of a cell failure.
For industrial marine applications, such as ferry boats and diesel-electric hybrid cargo ships, having battery systems that are safe, reliable, compact and lightweight is critical. In addition to having expected lifetimes of up to 10 years, these marine systems must be able to pass the rigorous anti-propagation standards set forth by groups such as the Norwegian Maritime Authority and the DMV·DL. Economical natural graphite is used as a direct aluminum replacement in these safety-critical battery systems.
Grid Storage Batteries
The ability to store energy for use in peak times is more efficient than adding seldom-used generating capacity. Battery systems used for grid storage need to be compact and reliable. In addition to expected lifetimes of up to 10 years, these systems must also be able to prevent propagation in the event of a cell failure. Economical flexible natural graphite is used as an aluminum replacement for these long-life battery systems.